Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling in Schistosomiasis-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension
A Perspective for Antifibrotic Drugs?
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Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting a large portion of the global human population and represents one of the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) around the world.1–3 Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is classified in the group 1.4.5, according to the current clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension from Dana Point in 2008.4 It has been suggested that pulmonary vascular remodeling in response to Schistosoma infection is similar to other forms of PAH, such as idiopathic PAH.2 In addition, the presence of prominent granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis has been described.1,5,6 In recent years, we have noticed that augmented inflammation is indeed an unavoidable player in the pathology of idiopathic PAH, and the literature …