Efficacy and Safety of a 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate in Patients on Vitamin K Antagonists Presenting With Major BleedingClinical Perspective
A Randomized, Plasma-Controlled, Phase IIIb Study
Background—Patients experiencing major bleeding while taking vitamin K antagonists require rapid vitamin K antagonist reversal. We performed a prospective clinical trial to compare nonactivated 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) with plasma for urgent vitamin K antagonist reversal.
Methods and Results—In this phase IIIb, multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial, nonsurgical patients were randomized to 4F-PCC (containing coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and proteins C and S) or plasma. Primary analyses examined whether 4F-PCC was noninferior to plasma for the coprimary end points of 24-hour hemostatic efficacy from start of infusion and international normalized ratio correction (≤1.3) at 0.5 hour after end of infusion. The intention-to-treat efficacy population comprised 202 patients (4F-PCC, n=98; plasma, n=104). Median (range) baseline international normalized ratio was 3.90 (1.8–20.0) for the 4F-PCC group and 3.60 (1.9–38.9) for the plasma group. Effective hemostasis was achieved in 72.4% of patients receiving 4F-PCC versus 65.4% receiving plasma, demonstrating noninferiority (difference, 7.1% [95% confidence interval, –5.8 to 19.9]). Rapid international normalized ratio reduction was achieved in 62.2% of patients receiving 4F-PCC versus 9.6% receiving plasma, demonstrating 4F-PCC superiority (difference, 52.6% [95% confidence interval, 39.4 to 65.9]). Assessed coagulation factors were higher in the 4F-PCC group than in the plasma group from 0.5 to 3 hours after infusion start (P<0.02). The safety profile (adverse events, serious adverse events, thromboembolic events, and deaths) was similar between groups; 66 of 103 (4F-PCC group) and 71 of 109 (plasma group) patients experienced ≥1 adverse event.
Conclusions—4F-PCC is an effective alternative to plasma for urgent reversal of vitamin K antagonist therapy in major bleeding events, as demonstrated by clinical assessments of bleeding and laboratory measurements of international normalized ratio and factor levels.
- Received November 1, 2012.
- Accepted July 12, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.