Abstract P442: Habitual Dietary Fat Intake and Meal-derived Measures of Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study
Some prospective and intervention studies have shown beneficial effects of poly- and/or mono-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and/or MUFA) on diabetes incidence and insulin sensitivity as compared with saturated fatty acids (SFA). The potential effect of dietary fatty acids on insulin secretion has not been studied so far in a human population-based study.
We hypothesized that intake of dietary fatty acids may be associated with both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.
The study population is a random sample (n=184) of the general population, aged 40-65 years, Hoorn, the Netherlands. Diabetes patients were excluded. Habitual dietary fat intake was calculated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels were measured repeatedly up to 4 hours following a mixed meal. The insulinogenic index (delta insulin0-30min/delta glucose0-30min) and AUCinsulin/ AUCglucose were calculated as measures of insulin secretion. From a mathemathical model, other insulin secretion measures were calculated (beta-cell glucose sensitivity, rate sensitivity and potentiation factor ratio). Oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (OGIS) was calculated from oral glucose tolerance test. By linear regression analysis, changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity were calculated per 1 % of energy (%E) as fat (type) replacing 1 %E carbohydrates.
We found higher intake of PUFAs as compared to carbohydrates independently associated with increased AUCinsulin/ AUCglucose (Figure). Other fatty acids were not significantly associated with measures of insulin secretion and none of the fatty acids was associated with the mathemathical model-derived measures of insulin secretion (data not shown). Total fat intake was associated with increased insulin sensitivity (OGIS), which could mainly be attributed to of the association of MUFAs with insulin sensitivity.
To conclude, effects of different dietary fatty acids on diabetes features may include differential effects on insulin secretion.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.