Abstract P390: A Significant Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid with Coronary Artery Calcification among Men in the General Population in Japan: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA)
Background Dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in Japanese in Japan is about 10 times as high as that in the US, e.g. 1.0 g/day vs. 0.1 g/day, respectively. Evidence from a large clinical trial and prospective cohort study indicates that amount of marine n-3 fatty acids consumed in Japanese in Japan has anti-atherogenic properties. We have previously reported that serum levels of marine n-3 fatty acids were modestly and non-significantly associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) among Japanese men aged 40-49 years. We hypothesized that marine n-3 fatty acids had a significant inverse association with CAC in Japanese men in Japan in broader age-range, i.e., 40-79 years with a larger sample size.
Methods A population-based sample of 940 randomly selected Japanese men aged 40-79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease from Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan, were examined for CAC, cardiovascular risk factors and serum fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosaxehaenoic acids (DHA) during 2005 to 2008. We excluded very heavy drinkers who consumed ≥ 69g of ethanol per day (n=68). Thus our final sample size was 872. CAC score was quantified by Agaston’s method by a trained reader who was blinded to participant’s characteristics. Serum fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage. To analyze the association of CAC score with serum marine n-3 fatty acids CAC score was modeled using a quantile regression analysis, with quartile after adjusting for age, current smoking, diabetes, hypertension, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body-mass index, and C-reactive protein. Diabetes was defined as individuals with fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or under diabetic medications. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, or under BP medications. Serum total marine n-3 fatty acids were defined as the sum of EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid.
Results Prevalence of CCS score >0 was 11.3%, 45.9%, 67.4%, and 73.2 % for men aged 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years, respectively. Prevalence of CCS score ≥ 100 was 0%, 10.7%, 21.0%, and 34.5%, respectively. Serum percentages (mean (SD)) of total marine n-3 fatty acids, EPA, and DHA were 12.3 (4.6), 3.1 (1.7), and 5.9 (1.6), respectively. Total marine n-3 fatty acids had a moderate and non-significant inverse association with CAC scores (coefficient=-1.74, p=0.14) after adjusting for the above-mentioned risk factors. In contrast, DHA had a significant inverse association with CAC score (coefficient=-8.35, p=0.025) while EPA had no significant association (coefficient=-1.08, p=0.737).
Conclusions These results may suggest that dietary intake of DHA but not EPA consumed in Japanese men in Japan has anti-atherogenic properties, although the cross-sectional design of this study precludes causality.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.