Abstract P332: Factors Associated with Blood Pressure Response to the Cold Pressor Test: The GenSalt Study
An elevated blood pressure (BP) response to cold pressor test (CPT) is associated with increased risk of hypertension. However, little is known about factors influencing BP response to CPT. We conducted the CPT among 2,682 participants from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lifestyle were collected during a 3-day baseline examination in the GenSalt study. During the CPT, BP was measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer prior to and 0, 1, 2, and 4 minutes after the participants immersed their right hand in ice water (3-5 °C) for 1 minute. The BP response at different time points (0, 1, 2, and 4 minutes post ice-water immersion), maximum BP response, and the area under the curve (AUC) of BP responses above pre-CPT levels were calculated to measure the magnitude of BP response to CPT. The average age of the participants was 42.2 years, and 53.3% of the participants were male. Study participants had a mean body mass index of 23.9 kg/m2, systolic BP (SBP) of 119.6 mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) of 75.6 mmHg. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that female gender, older age, higher baseline BP, less physical activity, and alcohol drinking were associated with increased BP response to CPT. For example, maximum SBP response (mean ± SD) was significantly greater in women than in men (15.5±10.7 vs. 13.8±10.0 mm Hg; P < 0.0001), increased with age (12.4±8.7, 13.8±10.0, and 16.4±11.2 mm Hg for these aged <35, 35-44, and ≥ 45 years, respectively; P for trend < 0.0001), and increased with baseline BP (13.5±10.0, 14.9±10.2, and 17.4±11.5 mm Hg, for those with baseline BP <120/80, 120-139/80-89, and ≥ 140/90 mm Hg, respectively; P for trend < 0.0001). We also observed that less physical activity was associated with greater AUC of SBP response during the CPT (P = 0.02). Furthermore, compared with non-drinkers, alcohol drinkers had greater AUC of DBP response (P = 0.04). In conclusion, this large study indicates for the first time that multiple factors are
associated with BP response to CPT. Increasing physical activity and reducing alcohol drinking may help prevent hypertension through the mechanism of inhibiting cardiovascular hyperreactivity to stress.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.