Abstract P255: Decrease in Serum Lipids among 5th Grade CARDIAC Participants, 2002-2012
The presence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors such as elevations in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and the related non high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol in children is predictive of later cardiovascular disease. LDL and non-HDL have recent decreases in the US adult and youth population despite increases in obesity rates. The purpose of this study was to assess these trends among Appalachian 5th grade children.
Methods: 47,198 children, mostly between 10-11 years old, participated in a cross-sectional statewide CARDIAC (Coronary Artery Risk Detection In Appalachian Communities) screening between 2002-2012 and had a complete fasting lipid profile (FLP). Consistent with state demographics, 92.6% were Caucasian and 53.6% female.
LDL (Mean = 92.9, sd = 25.5) and non-HDL (M=111, sd = 28.9) cholesterol levels were normally distributed. Covariates included race, gender, age, SBP and BMI (M = 21.36, sd = 5.2). Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and orthogonal contrast matrices were used to test the hypothesis of a linear (v. non-linear) trend over time for LDL and non-HDL values.
Results: Models predicting LDL and non-HDL were significant and fit a linear trend (p-value < 0.0001) attributable to the explanatory variables (race was not significant and excluded from the final models). For LDL, year of screening was significant (p<0.0001) as was gender, age and BMI (all p < 0.0001). For non-HDL, year of screening was also significant (p<0.0001), as was gender (p=0.0194), age (p<0.0001), BMI (p<0.0001), and SBP (p=0.0013). There was a decreasing trend in LDL (dot) and non-HDL (broken line) over time (Figure 1). Although some non-linear trends were also significant (e.g., a quartic trend, p < 0.001), the linear trend provided the best fit for both models.
Conclusion: The mean values for LDL and non-HDL of a cross-sectional sample of children in 5th grade Appalachia has decreased over time even after adjusting for age, BMI, gender, race and SBP.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.