Abstract P196: Sleep Apnea Symptoms Help Screen for Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nationally-representative Sample
Introduction: Sleep apnea increases the risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). Polysomnography remains the diagnostic gold standard, but its expense makes it inappropriate for population-wide screening for sleep apnea. We evaluated a simpler, more feasible approach, to identify which self-reported symptoms of sleep apnea best delineate risk for MetS at a population level.
Methods: We reviewed available sleep symptom data from the 2007-2008 NHANES (N=4,099) cohort, which included: snoring and snorting/gasping (coded as 0, 1-2, 3-4, or 5+ nights/week), and non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness (coded as 0, 1, 2-4, 5-15, or 16-30 times/month). MetS was defined as ≥3 of: (1) Abdominal obesity (waist ≥102 cm men and ≥88 cm women); (2) Hypertension (HTN) (systolic ≥130 or diastolic ≥85 or HTN meds); (3) High-density lipoprotein (HDL) (<40 mg/dL men or <50 mg/dL women); (4) Triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL); and (5) Fasting glucose (≥110 mg/dL). Secondary analyses assessed associations of symptoms with individual components of MetS. Weighted multivariate regression analyses explored the relationship between sleep apnea symptoms and MetS independent of age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, health status, insurance, alcohol, smoking, and depression (and BMI for HTN, HDL, triglycerides, and fasting glucose).
Results: Although all four variables predicted MetS in adjusted models, snoring and snorting/gasping were stronger predictors and the only significant predictors in fully-adjusted models. Frequent snoring and/or snorting/gasping was associated with a 2-3-fold risk of MetS. Among components, snoring and snorting/gasping generally predicted elevated risk. (See Table).
Conclusion: In a nationally-representative sample, self-reported snoring and snorting/gasping were associated with risk of MetS and its components, even after controlling for confounding. Risk related to non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness did not remain after controlling for confounding.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.