Abstract P166: Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Adipocytokines and Inflammatory Markers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Adipocytokines may mediate obesity-related vascular disorders, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. The effects of low-carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on adipocytokines and inflammatory markers have not been well studied.
We recruited 148 study participants with a body mass index of 30-45 kg/m2, who were free of diabetes, CVD and kidney disease at baseline, and randomly assigned them to either a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g /day; N=75) or a low fat (<30% energy from fat, <10% from saturated fat; N=73) diet. Participants met with a study dietitian weekly for the first month followed by group settings bi-weekly for 5 months and monthly for the subsequent 6 months. Each group was provided the same behavioral curriculum related to diet emphasizing portion control and eating habits. Clinic visit for data collection were conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months of intervention. Adipocytokines and inflammatory markers included adiponectin, leptin, resistin, C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha. Mixed-effect regression models including group, time and their interaction were used to analyze the data.
The mean age of participants was 46.8 years, mean BMI was 35.4 kg/m2; 11.5% were men, and 51% were African-Americans. Of the study participants, 60 in the low-fat group (81.1%) and 59 in the low-carbohydrate group (79.7%) completed the entire intervention. Compared to the low-fat diet group, the low-carbohydrate group had greater reductions in leptin (net changes were -11.22, -8.98 and -4.49 ng/mL at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively; overall P<0.001) and C-reactive protein (-1.06, -1.23, and -1.58 μg/mL at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively; overall P=0.01) and a greater increase in adiponectin (net change 628.9, 864.6, and 1335.9 ng/mL at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively; overall P=0.01). Low-carbohydrate diets also resulted in decreases in resistin, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha, but the reductions did not differ from those seen on the low-fat diet.
Our findings suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet was more effective than a low-fat diet for increasing adiponectin and decreasing leptin and C-reactive protein, and did not differ from a low fat diet in reducing resistin, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.