Abstract P134: Lifestyle Modifications are Associated with Decreased Coronary and Carotid Atherosclerotic Burden - A Systematic Review
Introduction: Lifestyle modifications are the crux of atherosclerotic disease management. Studies evaluating the evidence behind this have been limited by their small population sizes or mixed results.
Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that physical activity and/or healthy diet are associated with decreased progression of atherosclerotic disease, by doing a systematic review of different studies examining this.
Methods: Randomized controlled trials from 1946 (or earliest date available) to March, 3rd week, 2012 looking at the effect of intensive lifestyle measures versus usual care on the progression of atherosclerosis in the coronary and carotid arteries via quantitative coronary angiograms (QCAs) and carotid intimal medial thickness (IMTs) were identified by 3 independent people using MEDLINE, OVid, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The quality of the studies was evaluated by Jadad’s scoring. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.0 was used for statistical analysis.
Results and Conclusions: We identified 10 and 8 eligible studies using QCAs and IMTs respectively. 6 studies in total were excluded because of lack of sufficient data. A total of 1157 coronary lesions in 305 patients in the QCA group while a total of 1149 patients in the IMT group were analyzed. We divided studies looking at the short term (≤1 year) and long term (>1 year) effects of diet and/or physical activity. Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed and were not significant. Our analysis revealed that diet and/or physical activity were associated with a short term and long term decrease in atherosclerotic burden of both coronary and carotid arteries (Figure). We also found that the long term effects were similar in both the coronary and carotid artery beds (-0.21±0.102 and -0.218±0.064 respectively) in spite of different methods of measuring atherosclerotic burden. In conclusion, lifestyle modifications are associated with a decreased atherosclerotic burden in coronary and carotid arteries.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.