Abstract P109: Factoring Influencing Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Associations with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: The Grenada Heart Project
Introduction: Current WHO recommendations to lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk include 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (FV) daily. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the amount of FV intake and external factors influencing food choice is not well known.
Objective: We examined the factors influencing FV intake and associations with CVD risk in Grenada, a middle-income country.
Methods: A modified WHO STEPS survey, including questions on FV intake, was administered to a random sample of the Grenadian adult population. Average daily number of FV servings for each participant was calculated using the typical number of days/week and servings/day of FV consumption. Low FV intake was defined as less than 5 servings per day. External factors affecting FV intake were elicited. CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and overweight) were assessed per international standards. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between 1) external factors and FV intake, and 2) FV intake and CVD risk factors, adjusting for potential confounders. Log binomial modeling did not change results appreciably. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA v. 10.
Results: Of 2827 participants, 86.6% had low FV intake. Women were more likely to have low FV intake as were younger (age 18-29) and older (age 60+) individuals (p<0.05). Cost, taste, and access to a garden significantly affected FV intake, after controlling for age, gender, and education (Table). Media (newspaper, TV, radio) did not affect FV intake. In unadjusted analysis, low FV intake was associated with hypertension. However, in multivariable analysis, associations between CVD risk factors and FV intake were not significant.
Conclusion: FV intake is suboptimal in the majority of the Grenadian population. External factors such as cost and taste were associated with decreased FV intake while access to a garden increased FV intake. Patterns of FV intake and associations with CVD risk in LMICs merit further study.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.