Abstract P103: Dietary Patterns in South Asian Indians in the United States: An Analysis of the Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study
Background: Dietary patterns contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. South Asians, individuals from the Indian subcontinent, have earlier onset, more severe and prevalent CVD than many other racial/ethnic groups. We characterized dietary patterns in South Asians living in the United States and examined dietary pattern associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors.
Methods: We enrolled 150 South Asians aged 45-79 years living in the San Francisco Bay area without known cardiovascular disease between August 2006 and October 2007 in a pilot cohort called the Metabolic syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. A validated South Asian food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and CT scans were obtained on all participants. We used principal component analysis with varimax rotation to determine prevalent dietary patterns. We performed linear regression analyses with exchangeable correlations for associations between dietary patterns and metabolic factors, adjusting for age and sex (Model 1) and additionally adjusted for BMI, income, education, METs of exercise per week, alcoholic drinks per week, and smoking (Model 2).
Results: We identified four distinct dietary patterns (see Table). Compared with the “Prudent” diet, the “Western” diet was associated with lower adiponectin in Model 1 (-2.06, p=0.05) and Model 2 (-2.92, p=0.03).The “Rice-based” vegetarian diet was associated with lower HDL in Model 1 (-6.24, p=0.04) and lower adiponectin (-3.52, p=0.03) in Model 2.
Conclusions: South Asians living in the United States have four main distinct dietary patterns; only the “Western” pattern has significant nonvegetarian components. The “Western” and “Rice-based” patterns were associated with adverse metabolic changes compared with the “Prudent” pattern. Healthful dietary choices may help South Asians improve risk factors for CVD.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.