Abstract P095: Excess Sodium and Inadequate Potassium Dietary Intake by Hypertensive Patients in Italy: Results of the MINISAL Survey
Introduction: The main aim of the MINISAL-SIIA investigation was the assessment of the age-, sex- and region-specific average sodium and potassium intake and its association with relevant anthropometric characteristics in a representative sample of the adult hypertensive population.
Methods: 1232 hypertensive patients were recruited by 47 Italian centers certified by the Italian Society of Hypertension. All patients were on stable antihypertensive treatment and had been previously submitted to diagnostic screening and evaluation of the hypertensive organ damage. Main anthropometric indexes, blood pressure (BP) and 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using carefully standardised procedures.
Results: The average sodium excretion was 172 mmol (or 10.1 g of salt/day) in men and 138 mmol (or 8.1 g ) in women, with no significant difference among geographical areas. Over 90% of men and 81 % of women had a consumption higher than the WHO recommended target of 5g/day. The 24h average potassium excretion was 63 and 56 mmol, respectively, again without geographical differences. Nearly 92% of men and 95% of women had a potassium intake lower than 100 mmol/day (European and American guideline recommendation). The mean sodium/potassium ratio was 2.99 and 2.71 respectively, i.e. over threefold greater than the desirable level of 0.85. There was a statistically significant trend to a gradual decrease in sodium intake with age in both men (p for trend <0.001) and women (p for trend =0.015). There was also a graded direct association between BMI and sodium intake in both men and women, this association being independent of age (p<0.001). A direct association between BMI and potassium intake was detected in women (p=0.008) but not in men.
Conclusions: In this national sample of the Italian hypertensive population, the MINISAL-SIIA study results indicate that in all geographical areas dietary sodium intake was largely higher and potassium intake much lower than the recommended intakes. Overweight, obese and younger hypertensive patients had particularly high sodium intakes.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.