Abstract P090: Protein Sources, Carbohydrate Quality and Long-Term Weight Gain in Three Separate Prospective Cohorts
Background. Whereas evidence for relations of meats and dairy foods with long-term weight gain has been reported, much less is known on other protein sources, e.g. fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, or beans. Because carbohydrates (CHO) are often altered when protein sources are increased or decreased, differences in CHO quality could also modify effects of protein foods on weight gain.
Objectives: To evaluate the associations of changes in protein sources and changes in CHO quality, as well as their interaction, with long-term weight gain.
Methods. Participants from the Nurses Health Study (n 50 422), Nurses Health Study 2 (n 47 898) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n 22 557) free of obesity or chronic diseases at baseline were included. We assessed the independent relations of changes in protein sources and CHO quality (assessed by glycemic load [GL] and index [GI]), and their interactions, with weight change across multiple 4-year periods up to 20 years in each cohort, using multivariable linear regression with robust variance and accounting for within-individual repeated measures.
Results. Changes in intakes of protein foods were generally independent of one another, but inversely associated with changes in CHO. Different protein foods had diametrically opposed relationships with long-term weight gain, and changes in CHO quality were also associated with weight gain (Table). Increased GL modified how increases in protein foods were associated with weight gain (P-interactions<0.001). Among protein foods associated with relative weight loss, a simultaneous decrease in GL augmented this effect while an increase in GL reduced it. Conversely, among protein foods associated with relative weight gain, a simultaneous decrease in GL mitigated this effect while an increase in GL amplified it.
Conclusion. Consistent findings in three separate cohorts suggest that attention to both healthier protein sources as well as concomitant CHO quality is important for preventing long-term weight gain.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.