Abstract P053: Chocolate Consumption is Associated with a Lower Risk of Diabetes Melitus in the Physicians’ Health Study
Background: Previous studies have reported beneficial effects of cocoa or chocolate on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption is associated with DM risk.
Objective: To test the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is inversely associated with incident DM in the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS).
Method: We prospectively analyses data on 18,140 PHS participants that were free of DM at baseline (1997-2001). Chocolate consumption was obtained from a baseline food-frequency questionnaire (by asking how often on average people consumed one ounce of chocolate during the past year). Incident DM was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample by review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the HR and 95% CI of DM.
Results: Mean age among men at baseline was 66.2 ±9.2 years. The frequency of chocolate consumption was 29.2% for 1-3 per month, 20.0% for 1/week, 16.7% for 2-4/week, and 9.6% for 5+/week. During a mean follow up of 9.5 years, 1,118 men (6.2%) developed DM. In a multivariable model controlling for established risk factors for DM and nutrients’ factors, increasing chocolate consumption was inversely associated with a lower risk of incident DM (p for linear trend = 0.013, Figure. 1). The HR of DM was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.59-0.97) comparing chocolate consumption of ≥5 servings per week versus none. In a secondary analysis stratified by baseline BMI, HR was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.40-1.09) for people with BMI<25 kg/m2( p for linear trend= 0.03), 0.75(95% CI: 0.53-1.05) for individuals with BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2( p for linear trend =0.01), and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.53-1.55) for people with BMI of 30+kg/m2(p for linear trend= 0.42).
Conclusion: Our data showed an overall inverse association of chocolate consumption with incident DM in US male physicians. This association appears to be pronounced to people with BMI <30 kg/m2. Replication of these findings and elucidation of potential biologic pathways are warranted.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.