Abstract MP93: Intake of Fruits, Berries and Vegetables and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study
Background: Fruits and vegetables decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) by reducing energy intake and consequently weight, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the risk, independent on body weight. We assessed the relation between the intake of fruits, berries and vegetables and the risk of T2D in Finnish men.
Methods: A total of 2474 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of diabetes at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. The consumption of foods was assessed with instructed 4-day food recording by household measures. Fruits, berries and vegetables included unprocessed and processed fruits and vegetables, excluding potatoes. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose of ≥7.0 mmol/L or oral glucose tolerance test 2-h blood glucose >11.0 mmol/L at study visit or a register based clinical diagnosis with pharmacological therapy. In the Cox proportional hazards model, the relative risk (RR) for T2D was computed for the quartiles of fruit, berry and vegetable intake, adjusting for age, examination year, pack-years of smoking, leisure-time physical activity, socioeconomic status, education years, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, family history of diabetes, and the intakes of energy and alcohol.
Results: At baseline, the mean total intake of fruits, berries and vegetables was 347 g/d (SD 233), of which fruits contributed 94 g/d (SD 110), berries 38 g/d (SD 49), fruit and berry juices 88 g/d (SD 161), jams 7 g/d (SD 10) and vegetables 120 g/d (SD 85). During the mean follow-up time of 19.0 years, 483 new cases of T2D occurred. The total intake of fruits, berries and vegetables was not statistically significantly related to the risk of T2D, the multivariable-adjusted RR for T2D in quartiles was 1, 0.87 (95% CI: 0.67-1.22), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.68-1.14) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.72-1.23, P for trend=0.71). In the further analysis with the individual components, we found that the intake of berries was associated with a reduced risk; the multivariable-adjusted RR for T2D in the highest (≥59 g/d) vs. the lowest (<1g/d) quartile was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.47-0.83, P for trend=0.002). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were found with intakes of fruits (extreme-quartile RR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.79-1.23, P for trend=0.97), fruit and berry juice (RR 1.03, 95% CI: 0.79-1.34, P for trend=0.76), or vegetables (RR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.65-1.09, P for trend=0.32).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that higher intake of berries may be related to a reduced risk of T2D in middle-aged men, while for fruits and vegetables no such association was found. One possible explanation for the findings may be the high content of polyphenolic compounds in berries that have been found to improve glucose metabolism.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.