Abstract MP92: Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat Consumption and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background: Several studies have recently evaluated the relation of processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). An updated review and quantitative assessment of these studies is crucial for public health recommendations.
Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relation of processed (salted or otherwise preserved), unprocessed, and total red meat consumption with DM. We updated a prior systematic search (to Mar 2009) for additional cohort, case-control, or randomized studies through Oct 2012. Among prior identified studies and 208 newly identified abstracts, 13 studies, all prospective cohorts, met inclusion criteria. These included 4 prior identified studies, 3 updated analyses, and 6 new cohorts. Data were extracted independently in duplicate. Random-effects generalized least squares models for trend were used to derive pooled dose-response estimates. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was tested with goodness of fit (λ2), and publication bias by funnel plots and Begg’s test.
Results: The 13 studies provided 34 separate estimates for relations of processed, unprocessed, and total red meat consumption with incident DM. These included 574,212 individuals and 33,482 DM cases. In pooled analyses, per 50-g serving/d of processed meats, DM risk was 35% higher (13 studies; 34,077 cases; RR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.24-1.55; P<0.001). The latter corresponded to 82% higher DM risk (RR 1.82; 95% CI, 1.64-2.02; P<0.001) for each 100-g serving/d of processed meats. Per 100-g serving/d of unprocessed red meats, 13% higher risk of DM was seen (12 studies; 31 591 cases; RR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.17; P<0.001). Fewer studies evaluated total red meat, with intermediate results (5 studies; 16,747 cases; RR per 100-g serving/d 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11-1.21; P<0.001). Heterogeneity was evident by study location, with stronger risk estimates in US vs European populations. Evidence for publication bias was not seen.
Conclusions: Consumption of red meat is associated with high incidence of DM. Per gram, risk is highest for processed meats, highlighting the need for investigation of key responsible constituents and informing policy priorities.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.