Abstract MP69: Prevalence of Treatment Resistant Hypertension Among Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study
Hypertension requiring treatment with multiple antihypertensive medications is common among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Small clinic-based studies have reported a high prevalence of treatment resistant hypertension (TRH) among patients with CKD. However, the prevalence of TRH has not been estimated for people with CKD in population-based studies. We hypothesized that lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) would be associated with a higher prevalence of TRH. We determined the prevalence of TRH among REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants (n=30,239) by eGFR and ACR and evaluated clinical and demographic correlates of TRH in those with CKD. Blood pressure was measured twice, pill bottles were inspected, and serum creatinine and an ACR were measured during an in-home study visit. TRH was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg with concurrent use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or use of ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. CKD was defined as an ACR ≥30 mg/g or a CKD-EPI equation-derived eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. The mean age of the 11,285 REGARDS participants treated for hypertension was 66.0 (SD=9.0) years, 56.9% were women and 48.8% were black. The prevalence of TRH was 14.5%, 23.5%, and 31.2% for those with an eGFR ≥60, 45-59, and <45 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. The prevalence of TRH was 11.3%, 18.8%, 25.5%, and 44.5% for ACR <10, 10-29, 30-299, and ≥300 mg/g, respectively. A graded association between lower eGFR and higher ACR with TRH remained present after multivariable adjustment (Table 1). Also, after multivariable adjustment, black race, a larger waist circumference, diabetes, and history of myocardial infarction and stroke were associated with TRH among individuals with CKD. In conclusion, individuals with CKD have a high prevalence of TRH. Strategies are needed to improve blood pressure control in this population and reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.