Abstract MP24: High Intakes of Dietary Carbohydrate and Rice were Associated with Increased Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Chinese Men and Women
Introduction: High-carbohydrate diets, particularly those rich in refined carbohydrates, have been shown to have adverse cardiometabolic effects. However, long-term effects of increased carbohydrate intake on cardiovascular risk remain unclear, especially among populations with traditional diets featuring a high-carbohydrate and low-fat composition. We investigated dietary intakes of carbohydrate and its biggest contributor, predominantly white rice, in relation to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in two large prospective studies in Chinese men and women.
Methods: Included in this analysis were 64,869 women (40-70 y) and 52,519 men (40-75 y) who were free of CHD, stroke, diabetes and cancer at recruitment. Usual dietary intake was assessed by validated food-frequency questionnaires. Nutrient and food intakes were energy-adjusted using residual method. Incident cases of CHD (including nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD) were ascertained through in-person follow-up interviews.
Results: Participants in both studies had high carbohydrate intakes (mean±SD = 280±27 g/d for women and 316±34 g/d for men), accounting for 68.0±7.0% of total calories. Rice contributed 88.1±7.9% of total carbohydrates. We identified 309 incident cases of CHD. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios (95% CI) of CHD from the lowest to highest quartile were 1.00, 1.11 (0.75, 1.64), 1.48 (0.97, 2.26) and 1.90 (1.09, 3.31), P for trend=0.02 for carbohydrate intake; and 1.00, 1.01 (0.70, 1.46), 1.24 (0.84, 1.83) and 1.56 (0.97, 2.48), P for trend=0.06 for rice consumption. However, no significant associations were found for dietary glycemic index or glycemic load.
Conclusions: High intakes of carbohydrate and rice may be associated with elevated risk of CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese adults who typically consume a high-carbohydrate diet. Further studies are needed to evaluate proper substitution for refined carbohydrate and to elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.