Abstract 035: Effects of Canola Oil and High Oleic Canola Oil-rich Diets on Abdominal Fat Mass in Individuals at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome
Introduction: Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) decrease metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. Therefore, novel vegetable oils high in MUFA may improve CVD risk in individuals with MetS.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of five vegetable oil treatments including corn/safflower oil (69.3% LA, 17.6% MUFA), canola oil (62.8% MUFA, 29.3% PUFA: 19.5% LA, 10% ALA), high oleic canola oil (72% MUFA, 17% PUFA: 15% LA, 2% ALA), high oleic canola oil with DHA (63.8% MUFA, 13% LA, 6% DHA), and flax/safflower oil (69.4% PUFA: 37.5% LA, 32% ALA, 17.9% MUFA) on abdominal fat mass in subjects with central obesity plus at least one other risk factor for MetS.
Methods: A multi-center, double blind, randomized, 5-period crossover, controlled feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with different fatty acid profiles on abdominal fat mass in subjects with risk factors for MetS. Subjects (n=121: 62 women, 59 men) were fed an isocaloric heart healthy diet (50% CHO, 15% PRO, 35% FAT, <7% SFA) containing one of the five treatment oils incorporated in a smoothie for 4 weeks followed by a 2 to 4 week break between diets. Diet compliance was monitored by measuring post-diet plasma fatty acid compositions. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the end of each diet period.
Results: A mixed linear model demonstrated that canola and high oleic canola oils reduced abdominal fat mass by 1.6% (51.4 g) and 1.6% (50.1 g), respectively. These changes across treatments were significantly different from flax/safflower oil (p<0.05). Abdominal fat mass was unchanged on the other oils, i.e., high oleic canola with DHA (3200.0±94.8 g), corn/safflower (3160.6±95.2 g) and flax/safflower (3204.0±97.4 g). There were no significant changes in total fat mass, total lean mass or abdominal lean mass among the five treatments. Subjects in each treatment group maintained a stable body weight, and plasma fatty acid data for 54 subjects to date indicate excellent dietary compliance.
Conclusion: Canola oil and high oleic canola oil lowered abdominal fat mass compared to flax/safflower oil after 4 weeks in men and women with metabolic syndrome risk factors consuming an isocaloric diet. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that account for the visceral fat loss in response to a high MUFA diet.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.