Abstract 013: High Prevalence and Rapid Increase of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes: The TODAY Study Group
Background The natural history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth appears to differ from that in adults in that almost half of T2D youth in the “Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY)” study had a rapid decline in beta cell function. The rate of change in risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in youth with T2D is not known. We tested the hypothesis that CVD risk factors are highly prevalent and rapidly progress over time in youth with T2D using longitudinal assessments of hypertension (HT), microalbuminuria (MA) and dyslipidemia obtained during the TODAY clinical trial of adolescents with recent onset T2D.
Methods A cohort of 699 adolescents, aged 10-17 years, <2 years duration of T2D, body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile, Hemoglobin A1c (A1c) ≤8% on metformin therapy were randomized to metformin alone, metformin plus rosiglitazone, or metformin plus an intensive lifestyle intervention and followed over an average of 3.9 years. (range 2-6.5 years). Primary outcome was loss of glycemic control. Quarterly BP and annual MA were monitored with initiation and titration of therapy (ACE inhibitor) to maintain BP <130/80 or <95th percentile for age, gender, and height and MA <30 mcg/mg. Statin drugs were begun for LDL cholesterol (LDLC) ≥130 mg/dL or triglycerides ≥300 mg/dL. Change in the prevalence of CVD risk factors was examined accounting for the effect of treatment group, time, glycemic control, gender, and race-ethnicity.
Results In this cohort, 319 (45•6%) reached primary glycemic outcome. HTN was observed in 11•6% of subjects at baseline and 33•8% by end of study (average follow-up 3•9 years). MA was found in 6•3% at baseline and rose to 16•6% at study end. Participants with LDLC ≥130 mg/dL or statin use increased from 4.5% to 10.7%. Male gender and higher BMI significantly increased the risk for HTN. Higher levels of hemoglobin A1c correlated with the risk of developing MA and dyslipidemia.
Conclusion The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased rapidly among adolescents with T2D regardless of diabetes treatment. The greatest risk for HTN was male gender and higher BMI. The risk for microalbuminuria and worsening of dyslipidemia was related to glycemic control. Measures to address CVD risk are needed early in the disease course in this high risk population.
- © 2013 by American Heart Association, Inc.