Monocyte-Directed RNAi Targeting CCR2 Improves Infarct Healing in Atherosclerosis-Prone MiceClinical Perspective
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Background—Exaggerated and prolonged inflammation after myocardial infarction (MI) accelerates left ventricular remodeling. Inflammatory pathways may present a therapeutic target to prevent post-MI heart failure. However, the appropriate magnitude and timing of interventions are largely unknown, in part because noninvasive monitoring tools are lacking. Here, we used nanoparticle-facilitated silencing of CCR2, the chemokine receptor that governs inflammatory Ly-6Chigh monocyte subset traffic, to reduce infarct inflammation in apolipoprotein E–deficient (apoE−/−) mice after MI. We used dual-target positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity to monitor how monocyte subset–targeted RNAi altered infarct inflammation and healing.
Methods and Results—Flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, and histology revealed reduced monocyte numbers and enhanced resolution of inflammation in infarcted hearts of apoE−/− mice that were treated with nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA. To follow extracellular matrix cross-linking noninvasively, we developed a fluorine-18–labeled positron emission tomography agent (18F-FXIII). Recruitment of MPO-rich inflammatory leukocytes was imaged with a molecular magnetic resonance imaging sensor of MPO activity (MPO-Gd). Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging detected anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous nanoparticle-facilitated siRNA therapy (75% decrease of MPO-Gd signal; P<0.05), whereas 18F-FXIII positron emission tomography reflected unimpeded matrix cross-linking in the infarct. Silencing of CCR2 during the first week after MI improved ejection fraction on day 21 after MI from 29% to 35% (P<0.05).
Conclusion—CCR2-targeted RNAi reduced recruitment of Ly-6Chigh monocytes, attenuated infarct inflammation, and curbed post-MI left ventricular remodeling.
- heart failure
- magnetic resonance imaging
- molecular imaging
- myocardial infarction
- positron-emission tomography
- RNA, small interfering
- ventricular remodeling
- Received November 23, 2012.
- Accepted March 29, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.