Safety of Pacemaker Implantation in NonagenariansClinical Perspective
An Analysis of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project–Nationwide Inpatient Sample
Background—Data are scarce on outcomes of pacemaker implantation in nonagenarians (age≥90 years).
Methods and Results—We identified patients >70 years of age (n=115 683) who underwent initial pacemaker implantation in the 2004 to 2008 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project–Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, complications, length of stay, and charges. Unadjusted outcomes were compared using χ2 and Mantel-Haenszel tests. Multivariate hierarchical logistic models and stepwise linear regression models adjusted for case-mix variation and clustering. Eleven percent (12 917) were >90 years of age. Relative to patients aged 70 to 79 years, patients >90 years of age were more likely to have moderate/severe comorbidity (Charlson score >1; 43.2% versus 40.1%) and less likely to be admitted electively (17.5% versus 29.9%), all P<0.001. The unadjusted mortality and complication rates in patients aged 70 to 79 years were 0.60% (confidence interval [CI], 0.53–0.67%) and 5.61% (CI, 5.40–5.82%), respectively, and in patients aged >90 years were 1.87% (CI, 1.63–2.11%) and 6.31% (CI, 5.89–6.72%). Length of stay and charges in patients aged 70 to 79 years were 3.22 days (CI, 3.20–3.24 days) and $38 871 (CI, $38 700–$39 043), and in patients aged >90 years, 4.27 days (CI, 4.25–4.30 days) and $41 373 (CI, $41 190–$41 556). Multivariable analysis revealed severe comorbidity (odds ratio, 5.00; 95% CI, 4.05–6.17) was a greater predictor of mortality than increasing age (odds ratio, 2.81 per decade; CI, 2.35–3.35), all P<0.001. Similarly, severe comorbidity (Charlson score >5) was more strongly associated with complications, length of stay, and charges than age.
Conclusions—Although increasing age predicts worsening outcomes in the elderly, the absolute rates are modest, even in nonagenarians, and comorbidity is a stronger predictor.
- Received June 4, 2012.
- Accepted February 27, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.