Abstract 18852: Adenylate Kinase Phosphotransfer and AMP Signaling Regulate Cardiomyocyte Cell Cycle and Heart Regenerative Capacity
The mammalian heart loses its regenerative potential within a week after birth. Although under certain circumstances adult cardiomyocytes can re-enter the cell cycle, initiate DNA synthesis and progress towards mitosis, however, they do not complete a conventional mitosis cycle and proceed towards endomitosis resulting in polyploidy. This suggests that high-energy dependent steps in cell cycle and myofibrillar disassembly are malfunctioning in adult cardiomyocytes. It is known that nucleotide-based energetic signaling and metabolic environment are critical for initiation of tissue regeneration after injury. The regulatory mechanisms and energetic-metabolic signaling circuits that govern cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal and binucleation are poorly understood. Using mouse neonatal (2 and 10 days) hearts, with high and low regenerative capacity, respectively, we have determined metabolomic profiles and dynamics of phosphotransfer circuits and AMP-signaling using 18O-phosphoryl labeling mass-spectrometric and 18O-assisted 31P NMR techniques. The results demonstrate that loss of heart regenerative capacity 10 days after birth is associated with marked changes in heart metabolome and adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer flux. Among most altered metabolites were putrescine and myo-inositol, involved in tissue regeneration, Krebs cycle and amino acid metabolites, creatinine, glucose-6-phosphate and lactate indicating rearrangements in energy and substrate metabolic systems. AK flux was the only phosphotransfer flux significantly upregulated in hearts at 10 days of age along with increased in mitochondrial and glycolytic capacities and mitochondrial AK2 expression. Increased AK2 expression was associated with augmented AMP phosphorylation, measured by generation of β-ATP[18O], and reduction of AMPK activity. Thus, increased channeling of AMP into mitochondria and reduction of AK-AMP-AMPK signaling axis could contribute to the withdrawal from completion of cell cycle in terminally differentiated adult cardiomyocytes. The uncovered metabolic signaling mechanism opens new avenues for targeted regulation of heart regenerative potential critical for repair of injured hearts.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.