Timing, Predictive Factors, and Prognostic Value of Cerebrovascular Events in a Large Cohort of Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve ImplantationClinical Perspective
Background—The objective of this study was to evaluate the timing, predictive factors, and prognostic value of cerebrovascular events (CVEs) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
Methods and Results—The study included 1061 consecutive patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a balloon-expandable (64%) or self-expandable (36%) valve. CVEs were classified as acute (≤24 hours), subacute (1–30 days), or late (>30 days). CVEs occurred in 54 patients (5.1%; stroke, 4.2%) within 30 days after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (acute in 54% of cases). The predictors of acute CVEs were balloon postdilation of the valve prosthesis (odds ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval,1.07–5.67) and valve dislodgment/embolization (odds ratio, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.21–15.69); new-onset atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.11–6.83) was a predictor of subacute CVEs. Late CVEs occurred in 35 patients (3.3%; stroke, 2.1%) at a median follow-up of 12 months (3–23 months). The predictors of late CVEs were chronic atrial fibrillation (2.84; 95% CI, 1.46–5.53), peripheral vascular disease (hazard ratio, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.02–3.97), and prior cerebrovascular disease (hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01–4.15). Major stroke was associated with 30-day (odds ratio, 7.43; 95% CI, 2.45–22.53) and late (hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.01–3.04) mortality.
Conclusions—In a large cohort of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation, the rates of acute and subacute CVEs were 2.7% and 2.4%, respectively. While balloon postdilation and valve dislodgment/embolization were the predictors of acute CVEs, new-onset atrial fibrillation determined a higher risk for subacute events. Late events were determined mainly by a history of chronic atrial fibrillation and peripheral and cerebrovascular disease. The occurrence of major stroke was associated with increased early and late mortality. These results provide important insights for the implementation of preventive measures for CVEs after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
- Received April 9, 2012.
- Accepted October 15, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.