Abstract P144: Smoking, Menthol Cigarettes and Peripheral Arterial Disease in the 1999– 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
Introduction: Cigarette flavorings, with the exception of menthol, have been banned under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Previous studies have found strong associations between active smoking and peripheral arterial disease. While there is substantial interest in evaluating the health effects of menthol as compared to regular cigarette use, no information is available on the influence of cigarette type (non-menthol or menthol) on the risk of peripheral arterial disease.
Objective: To investigate the association of cigarette smoking, menthol cigarette use and the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in US adults
Methods: We studied 5,978 adults 40 years of age and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. Information on participant smoking status and cigarette type were derived from self-reported questionnaire data. Peripheral arterial disease was defined as an ankle-brachial blood pressure index <0.9 in at least one leg.
Results: The weighted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the study population was 4.9%. Fifty percent of participants were never smokers compared to 31%, 14% and 5% of former, current non-menthol and current menthol cigarette smokers, respectively. After adjustment for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, the odds ratio for peripheral arterial disease was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.80), 5.24 (95% CI: 3.41, 8.05), 3.37 (95% CI: 1.86, 6.10) comparing former, current regular cigarette smokers and current menthol cigarette smokers to never smokers. After further adjustment for pack-years and serum cotinine, the odds ratio for peripheral arterial disease was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.15), 3.65 (95% CI: 1.57, 8.50) and 2.51 (95% CI: 1.09, 5.80) comparing former, current regular cigarette smokers and current menthol cigarette smokers to never smokers. The significant association between smoking and peripheral arterial disease was similar for smokers of non-menthol and menthol cigarettes (p-value for heterogeneity= 0.53).
Conclusions: In a representative sample of the US population, current menthol cigarette use was associated with increased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease with no difference compared to smoking non-menthol cigarettes.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.