Abstract P025: Perceived Stress and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: a 35-Year Follow-up Study of Middle Aged Swedish Men
OBJECTIVE_ To explore the incidence cases of diabetes over 35 years of follow-up in middle-aged Swedish men in relation to their severity of stress at baseline.
RESEARCH DESIGHN AND METHODS_ This was a population-based random sample of 7 495 men derived from the Primary Prevention cohort study (Gothenburg) aged 47-55 years and without prior history of diabetes at baseline (1970-1973). Self-perceived psychological stress during the previous years was assessed with a single-item in the questionnaire. Incident diabetes from hospital discharge and death registries was collected during the 35 years follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate association of stress with incidence of diabetes.
RESULTS_ During the follow up of 35 years, 884 men developed diabetes. The crude incidence rate was 46.32 per 1000 persons-years. At baseline, 15.5% men reported to experience permanent stress. The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of type diabetes in men who had permanent stress was 16%, compared with 12% for those with no or periodic stress. In age-adjusted Cox regression analysis, men with permanent stress had a higher risk of diabetes incident (hazard ratio 1.52 [95% CI 1.26-1.82]) compared with men with periodic or no stress (referent). The excess risk of diabetes incident associated with permanent stress remained significant after adjusting for age, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, height, BMI, serum-cholesterol, hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
CONCLUSIONS_ Perceived permanent stress in middle aged Swedish men was an important long-term predictor of diabetes incidence. The association of stress was independent of SES, lifestyle and other conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors. The significant impact of stress on diabetes, as demonstrated in this study, emphasizes need for prevention strategies including intervention programmes for people with permanent stress.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.