Abstract MP089: Cardiovascular Protection Profile and All-cause and CVD Mortality among U.S. Adults
Introduction: Epidemiologic studies suggest that multiple cardiovascular (CVD) protection-factors (i.e., non-smoking, physically active, normal blood pressure, normal blood glucose, normal total cholesterol, non-obese, and healthy diet) are associated with significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality.
Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that the increased number of CVD protection-factors is associated with reduced risk for all-cause and CVD mortality and adherence to low CVD risk profile could result in significant lower rates of all-cause and CVD mortality.
Methods: We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988-1994) Linked Mortality File (through 2006), a prospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of 12,861 U.S. adults to examine the prevalence, associations, and population attributable fraction (PAF) of seven CVD protection-factors in relation to risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.
Results: Only 3.1% of U.S. adults had all seven CVD protection-factors. The average follow-up was 14.5 years. After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, hazard ratios (HR) were: 0.30 (95% CI 0.22-0.40), 0.21 (0.12-0.34), and 0.17 (0.09-0.32), comparing individuals with ≥six protection-factors to those with ≤one protection-factors for all-cause, CVD, and IHD mortality respectively. Elevated blood pressure was responsible for the largest number of all-cause and CVD death followed by smoking and poor diet. Overall, 59% (95% CI 27-78) of total deaths and 66% (95% CI 22-88) CVD death would have been avoided during the average of 14.5 years follow-up if the population were changed to the high CVD protection-factors status (with ≥six protection-factors).
Conclusions: Few adults in this U.S.-based study population had all seven desirable CVD protection-factors. The presence of an increasing number of CVD protection-factors was associated with a progressively lower risk of total and CVD mortality. Comprehensive population-based initiatives are needed to improve modifiable CVD risk factors, resulting in substantial reductions of all-cause and CVD mortality in the U.S. population.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.