β-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation Transactivates Protease-Activated Receptor 1 via Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 in Cardiac CellsClinical Perspective
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Background—Chronic β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) overstimulation, a hallmark of heart failure, is associated with increased cardiac expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-1 has been shown to cleave and activate the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in noncardiac cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that β-AR stimulation would result in MMP-dependent PAR1 transactivation in cardiac cells.
Methods and Results—β-AR stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) or cardiac fibroblasts with isoproterenol transduced with an alkaline phosphatase–tagged PAR1 elicited a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase–PAR1 cleavage. This isoproterenol-dependent cleavage was significantly reduced by the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001. Importantly, specific MMP-13 inhibitors also decreased alkaline phosphatase–PAR1 cleavage in isoproterenol-stimulated NRVMs, as well as in NRVMs stimulated with conditioned medium from isoproterenol-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts. Moreover, we found that recombinant MMP-13 stimulation cleaved alkaline phosphatase–PAR1 in NRVMs at DPRS42↓43FLLRN. This also led to the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway through Gαq in NRVMs and via the Gαq/ErbB receptor pathways in cardiac fibroblasts. MMP-13 elicited similar levels of ERK1/2 activation but lower levels of generation of inositol phosphates in comparison to thrombin. Finally, we demonstrated that either PAR1 genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of MMP-13 prevented isoproterenol-dependent cardiac dysfunction in mice.
Conclusions—In this study, we demonstrate that β-AR stimulation leads to MMP-13 transactivation of PAR1 in both cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes and that this likely contributes to pathological activation of Gαq and ErbB receptor–dependent pathways in the heart. We propose that this mechanism may underlie the development of β-AR overstimulation–dependent cardiac dysfunction.
- cardiac fibroblast
- protease activated receptor
- receptors, adrenergic, beta
- Received September 8, 2011.
- Accepted April 13, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.