Abstract 8661: Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent the Association Between Impaired Fetal Growth and Arterial Wall Thickening in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Introduction: Impaired fetal growth is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and is associated with early arterial wall thickening in young children. No preventive strategy has been identified.
Hypothesis: That dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during early childhood will prevent the association between impaired fetal growth and carotid arterial wall thickening in childhood.
Methods: The CAPS study was a trial in 616 newborns randomized to one of two daily 500mg oil supplements, from the start of bottle feeding or 6-months of age until 5-years of age. The omega-3 group received a fish oil supplement and canola-based margarines / cooking oils; the control group received sunflower oil supplement and omega-6 fatty acid rich margarines / cooking oils. Children born at term were recruited antenatally from hospitals in Sydney, Australia, between September 1997 and December 1999. 363 non-diabetic children with birth weight <90th centile participated in the CardioCAPS substudy at age 8 years (control group: n=176; omega-3 group: n=187). Primary comparison was an analysis of heterogeneity between groups for the association of fetal growth (birth weight adjusted for gender and gestational age) with ultrasound measured carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), at age 8 years.
Results: In the control group, fetal growth was inversely associated with carotid IMT (β-coefficient = -0.027 mm [SE 0.013] per kg birth weight, P=0.04), but this association was prevented in the omega-3 group (β-coefficient = 0.014 mm [SE 0.012] per kg birth weight, P=0.24). This association differed significantly between the two groups (figure).
Conclusion: The inverse association of fetal growth with early arterial wall thickness may be prevented by dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation over the first 5 years of life. Figure. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids mitigate the inverse association of fetal growth with carotid IMT in childhood.
- © 2011 by American Heart Association, Inc.