Abstract 16642: Clinical Outcomes and Improved Survival in Patients With Protein Losing Enteropathy After the Fontan Operation
Background: Patients (pts) with protein losing enteropathy (PLE) following the Fontan operation (op) have a reported 50% mortality at 5 years (yrs) post diagnosis. We review our clinical outcomes in this pt population.
Methods: From 1997 to 2010, 42 pts (55% M) with PLE following the Fontan op were identified from clinical databases. Data were collected by retrospective chart review.
Results: Mean age at PLE diagnosis was 18.9 yrs + 11 (4.7-57.9 yrs) and initial Fontan op was 10.1 yrs + 10.8 (1.8-37.6 yrs). Mean time from Fontan op to PLE diagnosis was 8.4 yrs + 14.2 (30 days-27yrs). Types of Fontan op included: atriopulmonary connection (28, 67%), lateral tunnel or intraatrial conduit (6, 14%), or extracardiac conduit (8, 19%). Mean time from diagnosis to last follow-up was 8 yrs + 6 (1-22yrs). Survival was 88% at 5 yrs. There were 11 deaths, mean age 32 yrs + 7.7 (22-47 yrs). Mean time interval from diagnosis to death was 7.5 yrs + 5.4 (1-18yrs). Causes of death include: sepsis (7), complications after Fontan conversion (1), and unknown (3). Decreased survival was seen in pts with high Fontan pressure (mean >15mmHg, p=0.04), decreased ventricular function (EF < 55%, p=0.03), and NYHA class >2 at diagnosis (p=0.04). Pts who died had higher pulmonary vascular resistance (3.8 + 1.6 WU vs 2.1 + 1.1 WU, p=0.017), lower cardiac index (1.6 L/min/m2 + 0.4 vs 2.7 L/min/m2 + 0.7, p<0.0001), and lower mixed venous saturation (53% versus 66%, p=0.01) compared to survivors. All factors were obtained at initial PLE diagnosis. Pts treated with medical therapy only (n=15) resulted in symptomatic improvement in 7 pts (47%), no improvement in 5 (33%), and death in 3 (20%). Pts treated with medical + surgical/interventional catheterization procedures (n=27) resulted in symptomatic improvement in 10 pts (37%), no improvement in 9 (33%), and death in 8 (30%). Treatments used more in survivors included spironolactone (21, 68%), octreotide (7, 21%), sildenafil (6, 19%), fenestration creation (15, 48%), and relief of Fontan obstruction (7, 23%). Of the 31 survivors, 17 pts remain well-controlled.
Conclusions: PLE remains difficult to treat, but in the current era, survival has improved with advances in treatment. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of disease and ideal treatment strategy.
- © 2011 by American Heart Association, Inc.