Abstract 16109: Red Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results From Two Cohorts of American Adults
Background: Red meat consumption is associated with increased risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. However, its relationship with mortality risk remains uncertain. We assessed the hypothesis that both unprocessed and processed red meat were associated with an increased risk of total, CVD and cancer mortality.
Methods: We followed up a total of 83,644 women in Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1980-2008) and 39,213 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1986-2008) who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaires and updated every four years. Deaths were identified by reports from next of kin, postal authorities, or by searching National Death Index. Deaths owing to all CVD causes included ICD-8 codes 390 through 459 and 795, and deaths owing to various types of cancer included ICD-8 codes 140 to 207.
Results: There were 13,818 deaths (3,065 CVD and 6,244 cancer deaths) in NHS with 28 years of follow-up, and 8,911 deaths (2,711 CVD and 3,056 cancer deaths) in HPFS with 22 years of follow-up. After multivariate adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, higher intakes of both unprocessed and processed red meat were associated with higher mortality risks in both cohorts (P for trend all <0.01). The pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for one serving/day increase of total, unprocessed and processed red meat consumption were 1.11 (1.09-1.13), 1.11 (1.08-1.13) and 1.17 (1.13-1.21) for total mortality, respectively, 1.15 (1.10-1.19), 1.16 (1.11-1.22) and 1.19 (1.12-1.28) for CVD mortality, respectively; and 1.09 (1.05-1.13), 1.09 (1.05-1.14) and 1.13 (1.06-1.20) for cancer mortality, respectively. We estimated that substitutions of one serving/day of fish, poultry, low-fat dairy products, beans, nuts, and whole grains for one serving/day of total red meat were associated with a 9%, 14%, 10%, 10%, 19% and 21% lower risk of total mortality, respectively.
Conclusions: Our results suggested that both unprocessed and processed red meat consumptions were associated with an increased risk of total, CVD and cancer mortality. Substitution of fish, poultry, low-fat dairy products, beans, nuts, and whole grains for red meats lowers mortality risk.
- © 2011 by American Heart Association, Inc.