Abstract 10141: Plasma Trans-Fatty Acids Are Higher in African American than Non Hispanic White Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Independent of Dietary Sources of Trans-Fatty Acids
Explanations for race/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular diseases risk in persons with type 2 diabetes are not yet understood. Trans-fatty acids (TFA) increase cardiovascular disease risk but data for race/ethnic differences in plasma TFA are sparse. We investigated race/ethnic differences in plasma TFA and asked whether TFA were higher in African Americans (AA) than in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and whether such differences were independent of modifiable clinical and behavioral variables. Our population included persons randomized into Look AHEAD at two clinics (Baltimore, n=92; Houston, n=177) who participated in an ancillary study of oxidative stress and completed the Look AHEAD Food Frequency Questionnaire (LAFFQ). Look AHEAD is a multi-center controlled trial of lifestyle intervention for weight loss in overweight or obese adults (aged 45-75) with type 2 diabetes. Representation of women (57%) and minorities (18.6% AA, 8.2% Hispanic, 4.1% other race/ethnicity) was relatively similar to Look AHEAD. TFA were measured before study intervention in plasma collected between December 2002 and April 2004. Nutrients and frequency of consumption of food sources of TFA (biscuits, doughnuts, chips, pretzels, French fries, nondairy creamer and use of margarine on bread) were determined from the LAFFQ completed before intervention. In a model adjusting for age, sex, clinic, time of sample collection, and plasma total fatty acid concentration (model R-square 0.44, p<0.0001), race/ethnicity predicted log-transformed fasting plasma TFA (p<0.005). TFA estimated from this model were higher for AA than for NHW (1.87+0.05 vs. 1.76+0.03 mg/dL, p<0.05). Further adjustment for body mass index, dietary TFA, total dietary fat, dietary saturated fat, total calories, frequency of consumption of each food source of TFA, physical activity energy expenditure, serum insulin and statin use did not attenuate racial differences. These results may help explain the increased cardiovascular risk among African Americans with type 2 diabetes. As these differences were independent of body mass index, dietary intake, and physical activity, we speculate that the racial differences identified may reflect differences in absorption or metabolism of TFA.
- © 2011 by American Heart Association, Inc.