Abstract 10028: Sex-Differences in the Association of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue with Adiponectin and Leptin in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study
Background: The secretion of adiponectin and leptin, two adipokines linked to cardiometabolic disease, from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) versus subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is significantly different as assessed by in vitro observations performed on tissue obtained primarily from whites. African Americans (AA) are known to have less abdominal visceral fat than whites, but the relationship of adiponectin and leptin with body fat compartments and insulin resistance is not fully understood across sexes.
Methods: Participants from the AA cohort Jackson Heart Study (n = 2,292; 64% women; mean age, 54 ± 11 years) underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin and leptin levels. Insulin resistance was estimated with the homeostasis assessment model HOMA-IR.
Results: Compared to women, men had smaller mean SAT volume (1,701 ± 796 cm3 v. 2,655 ± 974 cm3) but larger mean VAT (872 ± 410 cm3 v. 786 ± 359 cm3); both P<.01. Men had lower levels of adiponectin (3.8 ± 2.9 µg/mL v. 6.0 ± 4.6 µg/mL) and of leptin (10.2 ± 8.0 ng/mL v. 36.7 ± 22.0 ng/mL); both P<.01. Adiponectin negatively correlated with VAT (r = -0.30), SAT (r = -0.14) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.42) in women and with VAT (r = -0.16) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.28) in men; all P<.01. In multivariable adjusted regression models that included age, body mass index and cholesterol fractions, VAT (P<.01), but not SAT, was a significant predictor of adiponectin among women, whereas both SAT (P =.04) and VAT (P<.01) were significant predictors of adiponectin among men. Among men, adding HOMA-IR to the model nullified the significance of both VAT and SAT. Leptin positively correlated with VAT (r = 0.35), SAT (r = 0.62) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.34) in women and with VAT (r = 0.62), SAT (r = 0.74) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.38) in men; all P<.01. In similar multivariable adjusted regression models, both SAT and VAT were significant predictors of leptin among men, but only SAT was a predictor among women (all P<.01).
Conclusions: Whereas in AA men both VAT and SAT predicted adiponectin and leptin, in AA women only VAT was a predictor of adiponectin and only SAT a predictor of leptin. Our data confirm insulin resistance as a mediator for the association of adiponectin with abdominal visceral adipose tissue among AA men.
- © 2011 by American Heart Association, Inc.