Abstract 20027: Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Prevents Pressure Overload Induced Cardiac Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) - suppress inflammatory pathways that could prevent development and progression of heart failure. While current evidence suggests that dietary supplementation with fish oil enrich with both EPA and DHA exerts cardioprotective effect, little is known about the independent effect of DHA and EPA on the cardiac pathology. We compared the effect of supplementation with DHA versus EPA on inflammation and the development of left ventricle pathology in response to chronic arterial pressure overload. Rats were fed standard chow or diets supplemented with EPA or DHA at 3% of the total energy intake, underwent either sham surgery or abdominal aorta banding, and were maintained for 12 weeks. On the standard diet aortic banding increased LV mass by 39%, LV end diastolic volume by 51% and end systolic volume by 149%, compared to sham (p<0.05). Supplementation with DHA increased DHA content in cardiac lipids (see Figure), and prevented increases in LV mass, and end diastolic and end systolic volumes (p<0.05). DHA caused increase in the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha to undetectable levels (see Figure). In contrast, EPA supplementation dramatically decreased DHA content in cardiac lipids, and showed no prevention of LV pathology. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DHA, but not with EPA, increased serum adiponectin, suppressed inflammation, and prevented pressure overload-induced LV hypertrophy, LV remodeling and contractile dysfunction. These results suggest that treatment with DHA alone may be clinically effective for preventing hypertrophy and development and progression of heart failure.
- © 2010 by American Heart Association, Inc.