Abstract 17224: Increased Rate of Arterial Stiffening in Obese Adolescents as Compared to Lean in a Five Year Follow-Up Study
Objective: We determined prospectively the effects of childhood obesity on arterial stiffening and vascular wall changes.
Background: Childhood obesity confers an increased risk of vascular changes and adult cardiovascular disease. We examined the changes in arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV) and radial artery wall dimensions in obese adolescents and in lean control subjects in a 5-year follow-up study.
Methods: A total of 28 obese subjects and 14 lean controls participated in both baseline and 5- year follow-up studies. PWV, measured by tonometer (SphygmoCor®), was calculated using mean time difference and distance between two recording sites at radial and carotid artery, respectively. Intimal thickness, intimal-medial thickness and diameter of radial artery were measured using high resolution ultrasound (Visualsonics).
Results: In 5 years, PWV increased by 26% in the obese subjects compared to 8 % in the controls (p = 0.006). The diastolic blood pressure increased by 22 % in the obese and by 5 % in the lean controls (p = 0.006). The BMI increased similarly in both groups, as did the intimal thickness, intimal-medial thickness and diameter (Table). The change in PWV was strongly associated to the baseline BMI (r=0.60, p<0.0001), as was the change in DBP (r=0.47, p=0.002).
Conclusions: The widened peripheral arterial lumen and low PWV observed in the obese at baseline 5 years earlier might reflect a structural adaption to the increased blood volume and hyperkinetic circulation prevailing in obese state. The increase in arterial stiffness and diastolic blood pressure 5 years later suggests that childhood obesity has adverse impact on vascular dynamics occurring early in adolescence.
- © 2010 by American Heart Association, Inc.