Part 7: CPR Techniques and Devices
2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care
Over the past 25 years a variety of alternatives to conventional manual CPR have been developed in an effort to enhance perfusion during attempted resuscitation from cardiac arrest and to improve survival. Compared with conventional CPR, these techniques and devices typically require more personnel, training, and equipment, or they apply to a specific setting. Application of these devices has the potential to delay or interrupt CPR, so rescuers should be trained to minimize any interruption of chest compressions or defibrillation and should be retrained as needed. Efficacy for some techniques and devices has been reported in selected settings and patient conditions; however, no alternative technique or device in routine use has consistently been shown to be superior to conventional CPR for out-of-hospital basic life support. In this section, no class of recommendation is made when there is insufficient evidence of benefit or harm, particularly if human data are extremely limited. For those devices assigned a 2005 Class of Recommendation other than Indeterminate, Classes of Recommendation were assigned when possible using the same criteria applied throughout this document (see Part 1: “Executive Summary” and Part 2: “Evidence Evaluation”).
Whenever these devices are used, providers should monitor for evidence of benefit versus harm. The experts are aware of several clinical trials of the devices listed below that are under way and/or recently concluded, so readers are encouraged to monitor for the publication of additional trial results in peer-reviewed journals and AHA scientific advisory statements.
High-Frequency Chest Compressions
High-frequency chest compression (typically at a frequency >120 per minute) has been studied as a technique for improving resuscitation from cardiac arrest.1 The sparse human data have demonstrated mixed results. One clinical trial including 9 patients2 and another including 23 patients3 showed that a compression frequency of 120 per minute improved hemodynamics compared to conventional …