Stem cell biology and its potential for application in regenerative medicine continue to excite the scientific and lay communities alike. Many of the earliest efforts at translation have taken place in the cardiovascular arena. Since this field was last reviewed in Circulation there have been major advances in our understanding of cellular programming and reprogramming and the manipulation of cellular potency. The field has been transformed by the discovery that it is possible to reliably reprogram differentiated cells to a pluripotent state, laying the foundation for generating pluripotent cell lines from any individual. In this issue, the article by Drs. Yoshida and Yamanaka1 is the first in a miniseries designed to bring readers up to date with the latest stem cell science. Drs. Yoshida and Yamanaka review the landmark work on induced pluripotent stem cells and its implications for the study of the cell biology of disease, and for application in regenerative medicine.