Association Between Kidney Function and Albuminuria With Cardiovascular Events in HIV-Infected Persons
This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased.
Background— Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now a leading cause of death in HIV-infected persons; however, risk markers for CVD are ill defined in this population. We examined the association between longitudinal measures of kidney function and albuminuria with risk of atherosclerotic CVD and heart failure in a contemporary cohort of HIV-infected individuals.
Methods and Results— We followed a national sample of 17 264 HIV-infected persons receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration for (1) incident CVD, defined as coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral arterial disease, and (2) incident heart failure. Rates of CVD and heart failure were at least 6-fold greater in the highest-risk patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and albuminuria ≥300 mg/dL versus those with no evidence of kidney disease (eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and no albuminuria). After multivariable adjustment, eGFR levels 45 to 59, 30 to 44, and <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 were associated with hazard ratios for incident CVD of 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.86), 2.03 (1.47 to 2.82), and 1.99 (1.46 to 2.70) compared with eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Similarly, albuminuria levels 30, 100, and ≥300 mg/dL had hazard ratios for CVD of 1.28 (1.09 to 1.51), 1.48 (1.15 to 1.90), and 1.71 (1.30 to 2.27) compared with absent albuminuria. The associations between eGFR and albuminuria with heart failure were larger in magnitude and followed the same trends.
Conclusions— In this national sample of HIV-infected persons, eGFR and albuminuria levels were strongly associated with risk of CVD and heart failure. Kidney function and albuminuria provide complementary prognostic information that may aid CVD risk stratification in HIV-infected persons.
Received July 31, 2009; accepted November 20, 2009.