Abstract 3219: Curcumin Prevents the Development of Hypertension-induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Rats
Background: Hypertension causes left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with a preserved systolic function. While LVH might be a compensatory process, its presence of LVH is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and heart failure. Recently, we found that curcumin, a major curcumanoid isolated from Curcuma longa, inhibits the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 as well as the p300-induced acetylation of histones and a hypertrophy-responsive transcription factor,GATA-4, in cultured cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, curcumin prevents deterioration of the systolic function in rat heart failure models in vivo. However, whether curcumin prevents the development of hypertension-induced LHV at an early stage of hypertension is unclear.
Objective: To solve this problem, we have utilized a salt-sensitive Dahl rat (DS) model of hypertension.
Methods: We randomized 6-week-old DS (n=19) and control salt-resistant Dahl rats (DR, n=10) to a curcumin (Curc) or the vehicle (Veh) group. Then, these rats were given a high-salt diet and subjected to daily oral treatment with 50 mg/kg/day of curcumin or its vehicle for 5 weeks.
Results: There were no differences between Curc and Veh in any data examined before treatment (6 weeks of age). The high-salt diet induced a similar degree of hypertension in these two groups of DS compared with DR. At 11 weeks of age, transthoracic echocardiography in Veh showed that the LV wall thickness (DS:2.0 mm, DR:1.0 mm), LV mass (DS:1.06 g/m2, DR:0.64 g/m2), and LV fractional shortening (DS: 60%, DR:50%) were significantly higher in DS compared with DR, and the LV systolic and diastolic dimensions were significantly smaller in DS than DR. Curcumin treatment significantly (p<0.0001) decreased the LV wall thickness in DS (Curc:1.4 mm, Veh:2.0 mm) but not DR. Curcumin also significantly (p<0.001) decreased the LV mass in DS (Curc:0.76 g/m2, Veh:1.06 g/m2), but not in DR. However, LV fractional shortening in DS was similar between the two groups (Curc:57%, Veh:60%).
Conclusions: The natural compound curcumin inhibits the development of hypertension-induced concentric LVH without affecting the systolic function. Thus, this compound might be applicable to patients with early-stages hypertensive heart diseases.