Abstract 1650: Second Hand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Children
Background: Links between second hand smoke (SHS) exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults are well established. Little is known about the impact of SHS exposure on cardiovascular status in children. Many forms of CVD are initiated in childhood, and at least 1?4 children in the United States are exposed to SHS.
To investigate the effect of SHS exposure on inflammation, endothelial stress/function, and prevalence of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in children of two ages groups (toddlers:2–5yrs and adolescents:9 –14yrs); and
To further define the impact and relationships of SHS exposure on these endpoints in children that are obese.
Methods: A total of 52 toddlers, and 107 adolescents were recruited. Endothelial function was assessed via venous occlusion plethysmography only in adolescents whereas all subjects had serum drawn for C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule (sICAM). Prevalence of EPCs was measured by flow cytometry (defined as AC133+/CD34+/CD45−). SHS exposure was determined both by questionnaire and by hair nicotine level. All relationships reported are significant at p<0.05.
Toddlers had higher hair nicotine compared to adolescents, despite having similar reported home exposure to SHS (12.89 vs. 2.47 ng/mg [p=.04]),
a positive relationship was found between SHS exposure and endothelial stress (sICAM) in toddlers and was magnified among obese toddlers,
a negative relationship was found between SHS exposure and EPC prevalence in toddlers, and
an interaction was found between obesity and sICAM in adolescents, with obese SHS exposed subjects having higher sICAM than obese non-exposed subjects.
This interaction was present even after controlling for age, race, income, inflammation, and blood pressure.
Conclusions: These data suggest that special populations of children may suffer greater consequences of SHS exposure. Toddlers appear to receive a ‘higher dose’ of SHS exposure with similar exposure histories relative to adolescents. Toddlers also have a greater degree of SHS-related endothelial stress and decreased EPCs in comparison to adolescents. In both age groups obesity enhances the cardiovascular toxicities of SHS exposure.