Abstract 1404: Fish Consumption and Ethnic Differences in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in a Multiethnic Cohort
Background: Evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acid (ω3) intake from fish and other foods reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, little is known regarding which source is most beneficial. That the ethnic groups in the MEC have different sources of ω3 provides a unique opportunity for the study of sources. Also, ethnic-specific data and information on methods of preparation have not been established in the U.S population.
Methods: We examined associations between consumption of fish and other sources of ω3 and risk of CHD mortality in 82,243 men and 103,884 women of African-American (AA), White, Japanese (JA), Native Hawaiian (NH), and Latino descent, aged 45–75 at recruitment, residing in Hawaii and Los Angeles County and free of angina or heart attack at cohort entry between 1993 and 1996. We identified incident cases of CHD through the end of 2005 by linkage of the cohort with state and national death files. Using Cox regression, we calculated relative risks (RRs) of CHD mortality in men and women overall and by ethnicity for ω3 intake, preparation methods, shoyu use, and soy intake, adjusting for known risk factors.
Results: There were 4,516 CHD deaths during an average of 11.9 years of follow-up. For men, ω3 intake was inversely associated with overall CHD mortality (5th vs. lowest quintile: RR=0.77, 95%CI=0.60 – 0.98). The trend was mainly observed in whites, JA, and Latinos. Results suggested that whereas fried, salted and dried fish were risk factors, baked, boiled or raw fish, moderate shoyu use, and tofu intake were protective. For women, the protective trend of ω3 was less clear than in men (p=0.35). Salted and dried fish intake was a risk factor, while shoyu use and tofu intake were protective as well.
Conclusion: The findings suggest a cardioprotective effect of ω3 intake that varies by ethnicity. Observed differences by food source may reflect the effects of different preparation methods.
This research has received full or partial funding support from the American Heart Association, Pacific/Mountain Affiliate (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington & Wyoming).