Abstract 1389: Self-Efficacy and Barriers to Health-Promoting Behavior in Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants and Non-participants
Purpose: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) research has largely focused on outcomes of exercise participation, with less emphasis on diet or psychological determinants of behavior change. Because the CR population only comprises up to 20% of the cardiac population, it is necessary to examine determinants of health-promoting behaviors in patients who do not attend a formal CR program as well as in program attendees. The purpose of this study was to compare self-efficacy and barriers to exercise and healthy diet of CR program participants and non-participants at 6 and 12 weeks post hospital discharge.
Methods: A prospective longitudinal design was used. Patients were included if they met the following criteria:
diagnosed with/recovering from an acute cardiac event, treatment, or intervention for CHD,
received Phase I CR, and
physically able to participate in Phase II CR. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample. ANCOVA was used to determine significance of differences over time in self-efficacy and barriers to health-promoting behaviors between groups.
Findings: While baseline findings between groups in this study were not significant, CR participants (n=29, mean age=66, 52% female, 76% Caucasian) reported higher exercise and diet self-efficacy than non-CR participants (n=22, mean age=65.9, 59% male, 96% Caucasian). At time 2, CR participants reported greater exercise (F (3, 36) = 9.02, p=0.0001) and diet self-efficacy (F (3, 40) = 13.69, p=<0.0001) than non-participants, indicating they were more confident they could commit to an exercise regimen and healthy diet. The groups did not differ significantly in barriers to exercise at baseline. A significant difference was found in barriers to diet (t=2.13, p=0.04). At time 2, CR participants reported fewer barriers to exercise (F (3, 38) = 13.82, p <0.0001) and healthy diet (F (3, 39) = 18.19, p <0.0001) than non-participants, indicating a more positive perception of exercise and healthy diet. These findings improve our understanding of factors influencing adoption of healthy exercise and dietary related behaviors, and are useful for designing interventions to assist individuals in sustaining secondary preventive efforts over time.