Abstract 1345: The Effects of a Standard Fat- and Calorie-Restricted Diet vs. a Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian Diet on Adiponectin
Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory properties that might play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. Data from several epidemiological studies suggest that adiponectin levels may be modified by dietary intake. What remains unknown is the effect of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on adiponectin levels.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a standard fat- and calorie-restricted diet (STD-D) and a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet (LOV-D) on changes in adiponectin levels at the 6-month phase of the PREFER trial, an 18-mo randomized clinical trial.
Methods: We delivered the same 12-month behavioral intervention to both dietary groups; the only difference was that the LOV-D participants were instructed to eliminate meat, poultry, and fish from their diet.
Results: The sample included 143 adults (STD-D=79; LOV-D=64) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.7 kg/m2 and was 88% female, 67% White, and 44.2±8.5 years old. Adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW) and dietary intake using a 3-day food diary were measured at baseline and 6 months. The dietary data were analyzed with the Nutrition Data System Research program. We found no differences in age, education, weight, BMI, adiponectin and HMW between the two groups at baseline; however, females had significantly higher adiponectin (p=.04) and HMW (p=.03) than males. At 6 months, both groups significantly increased adiponectin levels, the STD-D group by 7.2 % (p=.04) and HMW level by 18.5% (p=.001); the LOV-D group by 9.4% (p=.01) and HMW by 15.7% (p=.02). However, the changes in levels of adiponectin, HMW and weight between the two groups were not significant. In multiple regression analysis, we found significant associations between changes in adiponectin (p=.003) and HMW (p=.001) and weight loss.
Conclusions: We observed beneficial effects of the behavioral and dietary intervention on changes in adiponectin in both groups. These findings suggest that improved levels of adiponectin and HMW are associated with weight loss and are independent of the type of diet consumed. Thus, it may be beneficial to focus on enhancing weight loss rather than on the type of diet consumed to improve levels of adiponectin and HMW.