Abstract 1151: Dietary Fat Differentially Influences Regulatory Endothelial Function During the Postprandial State in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: From the Lipgene Study
Background: The regulatory function of the endothelium is altered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the subsequent endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis. Dietary fat may affect the endothelium and factors related with the arterial wall.
Objective: To investigate whether endothelium-dependent vasomotor function and plasma levels of cellular adhesion molecules are affected by diets with different fat quantity and quality during the postprandial state in subjects with the MetS.
Design: Patients were randomly assigned to one of four isoenergetic diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high-SFA (HSFA); high-MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat, high complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diets, supplemented with 1.24 g/day of long chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) or placebo for 12 weeks each. Flow-associated vasodilatation of the brachial artery and postprandial plasma levels of total nitrites, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and P-selectin were assessed post-intervention.
Results: Post-intervention postprandial flow-associated vasodilatation was significantly higher after the HMUFA diet (P<0.05) compared to subjects adhering to the other three diets. Consistently, the postprandial NO synthase response significantly increased during the HMUFA compared with the HSFA and LFHCC (placebo) diets. Postprandial sICAM-1 levels were lower during the HMUFA than during the HSFA and LC n-3 PUFA diets.
Conclusions: Our data support the notion that the HMUFA diet improves postprandial endothelial cell function and decreases postprandial plasma sICAM-1 concentrations in patients with the MetS. These findings suggest that the postprandial state is important for understanding possible cardio-protective effects associated with the Mediterranean diet particularly in subject with the MetS