Abstract 1137: Small Improvements in Dietary Factors Are Independently Associated With Significant Reductions in Inflammatory and Lipid Biomarkers
Background: Inflammatory biomarkers have been significantly linked to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pharmacotherapy such as statins reduce inflammation but the quantitative impact of changing specific dietary factors is less established, especially in diverse populations. We aimed to determine whether changes in dietary fat, cholesterol, fruit and vegetable, and alcohol intakes over 1 year were independently associated with change in inflammatory and lipid biomarkers of CVD risk in free living individuals.
Methods: Participants were family members of CVD patients enrolled in the NHLBI sponsored Family Intervention Trial for Heart Health (FIT Heart) (n=501; 66% female; 36% non white; mean age 48y). At baseline and 1 year subjects underwent standardized assessment of diet by food frequency questionnaire, lipids by the Columbia University CTSA lab, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipoprotein associated phospholipase-A2 (Lp-PLA2) by diaDexus Inc. Linear regression was used to assess associations between dietary changes and lipid/inflammatory biomarker changes from baseline to 1 year. Results were adjusted for age, race, gender, smoking, education, family history of CVD, physical activity, body mass index, lipid lowering medication, and trial group assignment.
Results: A one serving increase in daily fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with a 0.1 mg/L reduction in hsCRP (p=.03). A g/day increase in omega-3 fatty acids was associated with a 0.2 mg/L reduction in hsCRP (p=.04). Each g/day change in polyunsaturated fat was associated with a 0.4 ng/mL change in Lp-PLA2 (p=.02). A 1 unit increase in %kcal from alcohol was associated with a 0.4 mg/dL increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p=.009), but was not associated with change in hsCRP or Lp-PLA2. Reductions in saturated fat and trans fat were associated with reductions in total and LDL cholesterol (p<.05).
Conclusion: Increases in fruit and vegetable and omega-3 consumption were independently associated with decreased inflammation. Significant improvement in lipids was also observed with minor diet changes independent of weight or lipid medication changes in free living family members of patients with CVD.