Abstract 1039: High Prevalence of Lower-Extremities Peripheral Artery Disease in Central Africa
Background: A high prevalence of lower-extremities peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) is reported among African Americans, but little is known about the epidemiology of LE-PAD in Africa. We sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for LE-PAD in the general elder population in 2 Sub-Saharan African countries: Congo and Central African Republic.
Methods: We performed 2 cross-sectional studies in the populations aged >65 years in two representative districts of Brazzaville, Congo and Bangui, Central African Republic. Demographic data, as well as medical history were collected, along with clinical and biological data to determine the traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) was used to define LE-PAD, when ABI <0.90. An ABI >1.40 was considered to define medial calcinosis (MC).
Results: Among the 997 participants (age 73.6±6.5 yrs, 40.7% males), 239 (24.0%) had LE-PAD, while 69 (6.9%) had MC. Adjusted for age, gender and study site, factors significantly associated with LE-PAD were hypertension (OR=1.75, 95%CI: 1.24 –2.48, p=0.002) and daily alcohol consumption (OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.53– 0.98, p=0.04). A borderline association was found with a body-mass index >30kg/m2 (OR=1.56, 95%CI: 0.95–2.58, p=0.08). Of note, neither smoking nor diabetes were found as significant associated risk factors. Adjusted for age, gender and study site, factors significantly associated with MC were schooling (vs. no school education, OR=3.20, 95%CI: 1.69 – 6.04, p=0.0003) and hypertension (OR=0.38, 95%CI: 0.22– 0.66, p=0.0006), while alcohol consumption (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.37–1.07, p=0.09) and heart rate (OR=1.23, 95%CI: 0.98 –1.56, p=0.07) presented a borderline association.
Conclusions: This first population study in Central Africa highlights the high prevalence of LE-PAD in the elderly, and emphasizes particularities regarding the association of risk factors with LE-PAD, different from data published in western countries.