Abstract 5685: TGF-beta Signaling and Kruppel-like Factor 10 Regulate Bone Marrow-derived EPC Differentiation, Function, and Neovascularization
Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may originate from the bone marrow and are capable of contributing to cardiovascular regeneration. However, the identities of these bone marrow cells and the signaling pathways that regulate their differentiation into functional EPCs remain poorly understood. Hematopoiesis consists of a cascade by which hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to either a common myeloid progenitor (CMPs) or common lymphoid progenitor (CLPs). The CMP cells can give rise to either granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) or megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs).
Methods and Results: Herein, we identify that CMPs and GMPs preferentially differentiate into CD34+KDR+ EPCs as measured by FACS, uptake of DiIacLDL and U.lex Lectin, matrigel studies, and endothelial markers. Co-culture studies in matrigel demonstrate increased network formation and incorporation when HUVECs were co-incubated with CMPs and GMPs only. Treatment of CMPs or GMPs with IFN-g blocked EPC differentiation, whereas treatment with TGF-b1 potently induced EPC differentiation. Conversely, EPC formation was markedly impaired using blocking antibodies or TGF-b1 deficient CMPs or GMPs, whereas IFN-g deficient mice have increased EPC differentiation. Functionally, EPCs derived from CMPs and GMPs more potently adhered to fibronectin-coated plates, migrated faster in transwell Boyden chambers, and released VEGF nearly ~2 to 2.5-fold higher than EPCs from MEPs and HSCs. Finally, we identified that a TGF-b1-responsive Kruppel-like transcription factor, KLF10, as robustly expressed ~60-fold in EPCs derived from CMPs and GMPs, compared to hematopoietic progenitors lacking EPC markers. Consistently, KLF10−/− mice have marked defects in EPC differentiation (−23.6% vs. WT, P<0.002), TGF-b1 responsiveness (completedly abolished), and impaired blood flow recovery in response to hindlimb ischemia (−23.8% vs. WT, P<0.008), an effect associated with reduced levels of circulating EPCs (−28.2% vs. WT, P<0.05).
Conclusion: Among bone marrow progenitors, a hierarchy exists for EPC differentiation. Targeting KLF10 may alter EPC differentiation from bone marrow-derived CMPs and GMPs and influence cardiovascular repair.