Abstract 5582: Impact of a Concurrent Chronic Total Occlusion on Long-term Mortality in Hospital Survivors after ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Background: Patients with multivessel disease (MVD) constitute a patient group with a high risk of mortality after STEMI. Recently, it was reported that the higher mortality in patients with MVD is determined by the presence of a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a noninfarct-related artery. Due to the higher risk profile, the in-hospital mortality rate accounted for this unfavorable outcome, moreover, multivariate analysis did not correct for residual left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Therefore, we studied the effect of a concurrent CTO on long-term mortality, excluding deaths in the first 30 days and correcting for LVEF.
Methods: Between 1997 and 2005, we admitted 3309 patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI. We categorized patients as having single vessel disease (SVD), MVD without CTO and CTO based on the angiogram before PCI. LVEF was assessed with echocardiography by global assessment of ejection fraction within 30 days after primary PCI and classified as ≤40% or >40%. Stepwise Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis.
Results: LVEF data were available for 1538 patients, of which 1485 (97%) survived the first 30 days after STEMI. SVD was present in 1013 patients (68%), MVD without CTO in 325 patients (22%) and a concurrent CTO in 147 patients (10%). Median duration of follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR 2.1–5.2 years). A total of 104 patients (7.0%) died; 61 (6.0%) in the SVD group, 25 (7.7%) in the MVD group and 18 (12%) in the CTO group (p=0.02). Median time to death was 2.1 years. After correction for the presence of MVD without CTO and differences in baseline variables (age>60 years, residual LVEF ≤40%, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, previous MI and shock) the presence of a CTO in a noninfarct-related artery is an independent risk factor for death (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 –2.8, p=0.04). Other independent risk factors are age >60 years (HR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0 – 4.7, p<0.01) and residual LVEF ≤40% (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.5–3.4, p<0.01)
Conclusion: After primary PCI, the presence of a CTO in a noninfarct-related vessel, and not the mere presence of MVD, is a strong and independent risk factor for long-term mortality even when adjusted for residual LVEF ≤40% and excluding deaths in the first 30 days.