Abstract 4845: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy due to Sarcomere Gene Mutations is Associated with More Severe Derangement of Microvascular Function Compared to Myofilament Negative Disease
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is an important primary feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), contributing to myocardial ischemia and ventricular remodelling, and is predictive of adverse outcome. Whether there is any association between presence/severity of CMD and HCM’s pathogenic substrate remains to be determined. To address this issue, we used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess CMD in an HCM cohort that received comprehensive genetic testing for sarcomeric/myofilament-HCM. We measured maximum (intravenous dipyridamole, 0.56 mg/kg) myocardial blood flow (Dip-MBF), using 13N-labeled ammonia and PET in 46 HCM patients (age 38±14 years, 32 male). Genetic testing was performed by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and automatic DNA sequencing of nine myofilament-encoding genes including both thick filament proteins (myosin binding protein C, beta-myosin heavy chain, regulatory and essential light chains); and thin filament proteins (troponin-T, troponin-I, troponin-C, alpha-tropomyosin and alpha-actin).
Results. Thirty-four mutations were identified in 30/46 patients (myofilament-HCM; 65%), including 29 with thick filament and 6 with thin filament mutations, as well as 4 with complex genotype. Despite similar age and clinical features, patients with myofilament-HCM showed lower Dip-MBF values than the patients with a negative genetic test (1.6±0.7 versus 2.2±0.9 ml/min/g, respectively; p=0.03). Specifically, 13/30 (43%) patients with myofilament-HCM had a Dip-MBF below the lower tertile for the study group (≤1.38 ml/min/g), compared to 2/16 (12%) patients with a negative genetic test (p=0.034). No difference in Dip-MBF was evident with respect to the particular sarcomeric gene involved (ANOVA p=0.63). HCM due to sarcomere gene mutations is characterized by more severe impairment in microvascular function compared to myofilament negative disease, irrespective of the involved contractile protein. These findings suggest that sarcomeric mutations might be implicated in adverse remodelling of the microcirculation in patients with HCM, and account for the greater prevalence of ventricular dysfunction and failure in this subset.