Abstract 4784: The Ross Operation: Lessons From Long Term Follow-up
Background: The Ross operation is considered the procedure of choice for aortic valve replacement in children and represents an attractive alternative in selected young adults. However, long term follow-up has demonstrated high rates of pulmonary autograft failure raising concern regarding its clinical utility. We analyze long term outcomes of our Ross series, focusing on predictors of autograft failure.
Methods: Between 1991 and 2006, 260 consecutive patients underwent Ross operation. Mean age was 35±15 years (range: 1 day to 64 years) and 75% were male. The technique for autograft implantation was a full root replacement in 70% (n=183), inclusion cylinder in 28% (n=73) and subcoronary in 2% (n=4). Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) was reconstructed with a pulmonary homograft in 94% (n=245) and with a xenograft in 6% (n=15). Mean clinical follow-up (97% complete) was 97±46 months (13 to 196 months). Echocardiographic follow-up was available in 234 survivors (94%).
Results: Hospital mortality was 1.9% (n=5) and 7 patients died during follow-up (3 non cardiac). Twelve year overall survival was 93±4% and freedom from autograft reoperation and from autograft valve replacement was 83±7% and 94±5% respectively. Twenty-five patients (9.6%) underwent autograft reoperation either for insufficiency (n=8), autograft or ascending aorta dilatation (n=6), or both (n=11) with no mortality. In 76% (n=19) of these patients, the autograft valve was preserved. Predictors for autograft dilatation (≥45 mm) were preoperative aortic insufficiency and full root technique. RVOT reintervention was required in 10 (4%) patients (reoperations n=7, balloon dilatation n=3). Twelve year freedom from RVOT reintervention was 95±4. Twelve year freedom from thrombo-embolic and bleeding events was 99±1% (1 stroke, 1 TIA, 1 bleeding event).
Conclusions: This long terms study confirms the excellent survival after Ross operation with an extremely low rate of thrombo-embolic and bleeding events. Autograft reoperation rate remains acceptable. Full root technique is associated with increased risk of autograft dilatation, and should be avoided especially in adults with preoperative aortic insufficiency. Autograft valve preservation is feasible in autograft reoperation.